- Minister of Science and Technology (2004-2009)
- Deputy Minister of Education (2001-2004)
Mosibudi Aaron Mangena was born on 7 August 1947 in Tzaneen, Limpopo. He is the son of Tebele Rephard Mangena and Tlodipyane Makwela. He matriculated in 1969 and later in his life obtained a BSc degree and an MSc degree in applied mathematics from UNISA.
He was elected onto the Students Representative Council at the University of Zululand in 1971 and joined the South African Students Organisation (SASO), of which he became chairperson of the Pretoria branch in 1972. He was also active as the national organiser of the Black People's Convention in the same year. His political activities led to his arrest and imprisonment on Robben Island where he was held from 1973 to 1978. He was then kept under house arrest in Mahwelereng Township before going into exile to Botswana in 1981, where he became the chairperson of the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania (BCMA). He was also the founding commander-in-chief of the Azanian National Liberation Army.
Upon his return to South Africa in 1994 he was elected as leader of the AZAPO party, of which he was the sole representative in the National Assembly. From 2001 to 2004 he served as the deputy minister of education, and from 2004 to 2009 as minister of science and technology.